UCLA Neuroscience Program Ph.D. Admissions Neuroscience Faculty UCLA and Beyond  



Stanley Carmichael Jr.
Neuroplasticity After Brain Injury

Work Email Address:  scarmichael@mednet.ucla.edu
Home Page: http://www.uclahealth.org/StanleyCarmichael Laboratory: http://carmichaellab.neurology.ucla.edu/

Work Address:
710 Westwood Plaza


Phone Numbers:
310-206-0550 Research Office
310-794-1195 Clinical Office


Selected Publications:

Carmichael S Thomas Brain Excitability in Stroke: The Yin and Yang of Stroke Progression. Archives of neurology. 2011; 23(43): .
Clarkson Andrew N, Overman Justine J, Zhong Sheng, Mueller Rudolf, Lynch Gary, Carmichael S Thomas AMPA receptor-induced local brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling mediates motor recovery after stroke. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2011; 31(10): 3766-75.
Savitz Sean I, Chopp Michael, Deans Robert, Carmichael S T, Phinney Donald, Wechsler Larry Stem Cell Therapy as an Emerging Paradigm for Stroke (STEPS) II. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. 2011; 42(3): 825-9.
Li Songlin, Overman Justine J, Katsman Diana, Kozlov Serguei V, Donnelly Christopher J, Twiss Jeffery L, Giger Roman J, Coppola Giovanni, Geschwind Daniel H, Carmichael S Thomas An age-related sprouting transcriptome provides molecular control of axonal sprouting after stroke. Nature neuroscience. 2010; 13(12): 1496-504.
Clarkson Andrew N, Huang Ben S, Macisaac Sarah E, Mody Istvan, Carmichael S Thomas Reducing excessive GABA-mediated tonic inhibition promotes functional recovery after stroke. Nature. 2010; 468(7321): 305-9.
Mostany Ricardo, Chowdhury Tara G, Johnston David G, Portonovo Shiva A, Carmichael S Thomas, Portera-Cailliau Carlos Local hemodynamics dictate long-term dendritic plasticity in peri-infarct cortex. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2010; 30(42): 14116-26.
Carmichael S Thomas Targets for neural repair therapies after stroke. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. 2010; 41(10 Suppl): S124-6.
Zhong Jin, Chan Albert, Morad Leeron, Kornblum Harley I, Fan Guoping, Carmichael S Thomas Hydrogel Matrix to Support Stem Cell Survival After Brain Transplantation in Stroke. Neurorehabilitation and neural repair. 2010; .
Benowitz Larry I, Carmichael S Thomas Promoting axonal rewiring to improve outcome after stroke. Neurobiology of disease. 2010; 37(2): 259-66.
Carmichael S Thomas Translating the frontiers of brain repair to treatments: starting not to break the rules. Neurobiology of disease. 2010; 37(2): 237-42.
Clarkson Andrew N, Carmichael S Tomas Cortical excitability and post-stroke recovery. Biochemical Society transactions. 2009; 37(Pt 6): 1412-4.
Harris N G, Carmichael S T, Hovda D A, Sutton R L Traumatic brain injury results in disparate regions of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expression that are temporally limited. Journal of neuroscience research. 2009; 87(13): 2937-50.
Sozmen Elif G, Kolekar Arunima, Havton Leif A, Carmichael S Thomas A white matter stroke model in the mouse: axonal damage, progenitor responses and MRI correlates. Journal of neuroscience methods. 2009; 180(2): 261-72.
Chow David K, Groszer Matthias, Pribadi Mochtar, Machniki Michal, Carmichael S Thomas, Liu Xin, Trachtenberg Joshua T Laminar and compartmental regulation of dendritic growth in mature cortex. Nature neuroscience. 2009; 12(2): 116-8.
Gregorian Caroline, Nakashima Jonathan, Le Belle Janel, Ohab John, Kim Rachel, Liu Annie, Smith Kate Barzan, Groszer Matthias, Garcia A Denise, Sofroniew Michael V, Carmichael S Thomas, Kornblum Harley I, Liu Xin, Wu Hong Pten deletion in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances constitutive neurogenesis. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2009; 29(6): 1874-86.
Carmichael S Thomas, Vespa Paul M, Saver Jeffery L, Coppola Giovanni, Geschwind Daniel H, Starkman Sidney, Miller Chad M, Kidwell Chelsea S, Liebeskind David S, Martin Neil A Genomic profiles of damage and protection in human intracerebral hemorrhage. Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 2008; 28(11): 1860-75.
Ohab J J, Carmichael S T Poststroke neurogenesis: emerging principles of migration and localization of immature neurons. The Neuroscientist : a review journal bringing neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry. 2008; 14(4): 369-80.
Miller Chad M, Vespa Paul, Saver Jeffrey L, Kidwell Chelsea S, Carmichael Stanley T, Alger Jeffry, Frazee John, Starkman Sid, Liebeskind David, Nenov Valeriy, Elashoff Robert, Martin Neil Image-guided endoscopic evacuation of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Surgical neurology. 2008; 69(5): 441-6; discussion 446.
Carmichael S Thomas Themes and strategies for studying the biology of stroke recovery in the poststroke epoch. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. 2008; 39(4): 1380-8.
Popa-Wagner Aurel, Carmichael Stanley Thomas, Kokaia Zaal, Kessler Christof, Walker Lary C The response of the aged brain to stroke: too much, too soon?. Current neurovascular research. 2007; 4(3): 216-27.
Ohab John J, Fleming Sheila, Blesch Armin, Carmichael S Thomas A neurovascular niche for neurogenesis after stroke. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2006; 26(50): 13007-16.
Li Songlin, Carmichael S Thomas Growth-associated gene and protein expression in the region of axonal sprouting in the aged brain after stroke. Neurobiology of disease. 2006; 23(2): 362-73.
Carmichael S Thomas Cellular and molecular mechanisms of neural repair after stroke: making waves. Annals of neurology. 2006; 59(5): 735-42.
Visnyei Koppany, Tatsukawa Keith J, Erickson Rebecca I, Simonian Sharis, Oknaian Nareg, Carmichael S Thomas, Kornblum Harley I Neural progenitor implantation restores metabolic deficits in the brain following striatal quinolinic acid lesion. Experimental neurology. 2006; 197(2): 465-74.
Tsai Peter T, Ohab John J, Kertesz Nathalie, Groszer Matthias, Matter Cheryl, Gao Jing, Liu Xin, Wu Hong, Carmichael S Thomas A critical role of erythropoietin receptor in neurogenesis and post-stroke recovery. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2006; 26(4): 1269-74.
Carmichael S Thomas Rodent models of focal stroke: size, mechanism, and purpose. NeuroRx : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics. 2005; 2(3): 396-409.
Carmichael S Thomas, Archibeque Ivonne, Luke Linslee, Nolan Tim, Momiy Janneth, Li Songlin Growth-associated gene expression after stroke: evidence for a growth-promoting region in peri-infarct cortex. Experimental neurology. 2005; 193(2): 291-311.
Li Songlin, Zheng Jian, Carmichael S Thomas Increased oxidative protein and DNA damage but decreased stress response in the aged brain following experimental stroke. Neurobiology of disease. 2005; 18(3): 432-40.
Carmichael S Thomas, Tatsukawa Keith, Katsman Diana, Tsuyuguchi Naohiro, Kornblum Harley I Evolution of diaschisis in a focal stroke model. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. 2004; 35(3): 758-63.
Mir Halleh M, Tatsukawa Keith J, Carmichael S Thomas, Chesselet Marie-Francoise, Kornblum Harley I Metabolic correlates of lesion-specific plasticity: an in vivo imaging study. Brain research. 2004; 1002(1-2): 28-34.
Carmichael S Thomas Gene expression changes after focal stroke, traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries. Current opinion in neurology. 2003; 16(6): 699-704.
Katsman Diana, Zheng Jian, Spinelli Kateri, Carmichael S Thomas Tissue microenvironments within functional cortical subdivisions adjacent to focal stroke. Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 2003; 23(9): 997-1009.
Carmichael S Thomas Plasticity of cortical projections after stroke. The Neuroscientist : a review journal bringing neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry. 2003; 9(1): 64-75.
Carmichael S Thomas, Chesselet Marie-Françoise Synchronous neuronal activity is a signal for axonal sprouting after cortical lesions in the adult. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2002; 22(14): 6062-70.
Carmichael S Thomas New laboratory start-up in the 21st century. Trends in neurosciences. 2002; 25(6): 287-8.
Carmichael S T, Wei L, Rovainen C M, Woolsey T A New patterns of intracortical projections after focal cortical stroke. Neurobiology of disease. 2001; 8(5): 910-22.
Research Interest:

Recovery after stroke is limited, making it the leading cause of adult disability. The mechanisms of recovery after stroke have remained poorly defined. We have shown that after ischemic injury the adult brain can sprout a limited set of new connections within partially damaged areas, in a process that correlates in magnitude and location with recovery. This axonal sprouting after stroke may be limited by the failure of adult neurons to fully activate a growth program and by the inhibitory cellular environment of the adult brain. Stroke also activates a neuronal growth program in a limited number of stem cells, or neuronal precursors, that proliferate and differentiate into neurons at sites adjacent to the infarct. The long-term objective of this research is to define the molecular mechanisms of a neuronal growth program in the adult brain so as to identify pharmacological targets to improve functional recovery after stroke. The specific goals of the lab are to characterize the growth-promoting and growth-inhibiting genes in the axonal sprouting and neuronal precursor cell responses after stroke. To accomplish these goals we have developed a model of stroke within the rodent barrel field. This cortical area has a well-characterized anatomy and stereotyped cellular architecture that allow its use as a template to map gene expression within injured and sprouting neuronal circuits and newly differentiating neuronal precursor cells. We are pursuing five lines of investigation with this model. First, we are mapping the expression patterns of a recently described set of regeneration-associated genes during axonal sprouting and neuronal precursor differentiation. Second, we are characterizing the expression pattern of glial-derived molecules that form barriers to axonal sprouting and neuronal precursor migration after stroke. Third, we are studying the functional effects of growth-promoting or growth-inhibitory molecules using selective blocking experiments of individual molecules through antibody or enzyme delivery to the stroke region. Fourth, we are characterizing the signals that lead from localized cell death in the infarct core to the distant stem cell or neuronal precursor response, with a focus on angiogenic signals that may lead to neurogenesis and particular the hypoxia inducible factor/vascular endothelial growth factor/erythropoietin system. Finally, because our data shows that stroke induces neuronal growth programs within specific areas adjacent to the infarct, we have hypothesized that these areas will be instructive for the neuronal differentiation of transplanted stem cells. We are using the maps of growth-associated gene expression derived from the preceding experiments to guide stem cell transplantation after stroke to test this hypothesis.